International Finance

Fintech and the future of Africa explained

Africa, fintech, UK businesses, Kenya, M-pesa, sub-Saharan Africa, digital infrastructure, financial transaction, Nigeria, oil revenue, cybercrime
Seven of the world’s 20 fastest-growing economies are African, and the continent’s total GDP is forecast to double between 2015 and 2030

Africa offers tremendous opportunities for the UK businesses and entrepreneurs.

By 2050, African will be home to a quarter of the world’s population. It currently has the youngest and fastest growing workforce: 60 percent of the population is under 25.

How can we harness this potential and deliver long-term opportunities of the “highest quality and breadth,” as the PM promised in the Cape Town speech?

UK businesses, particularly fintech firms, are in the best position to achieve this ambition, especially those with the capability to leverage Africa’s mobile connectivity.

There are over 700 million mobile subscribers in Africa and that number is expected to top 1 billion by 2023,

Mobile wallets creates many business opportunities for fintechs and a way to reach the unbanked—which, according to the World Bank, accounts for 68% of Africa’s adult population.

Some nations have embraced mobile wallet innovation faster than others. Kenya, for example, is leading the way with over 90% of the country using this payment method via M-Pesa, arguably the most successful and impactful fintech innovation in the world.

In contrast, Nigeria lags behind adoption, despite having the largest mobile market in Africa. There are now 135 million wireless connections yet only 6% of Nigerians use their mobile phones to make financial transactions.

Bringing digital money transfer into the mainstream by tapping into Nigeria and other “mobile-first” and nearly “mobile-only” markets in the regions—such as South Africa, Uganda and Angola, can help to close the poverty gap and drive financial inclusion—a problem that traditional banks have yet to solve.

The barriers to financial inclusion through traditional banking are variable and complex. Among them is the inability of Africa’s central banks to keep up with financial innovations that can reach the most vulnerable people. Regulatory reform is also required—and should extend to the telecommunications sector, which has become a vital financial services provider to millions of people.

Wide distrust in the banking system and fears of financial fraud are also major factors, as well as the extortionate charges that customers must pay for everyday banking services.  In big African economies like South Africa, financial services fees can be up to four times higher than in rich nations such as Germany or Australia – making it impossible for the poorest in the country to join the formal economy. As a result, more than 60% of all purchases in South Africa are still paid for in cash.

Banks struggle to lower their fees due to the high operating costs associated with doing business in fragmented markets and the ongoing need to spend on IT security to minimise the threat of cybercrime.

The only tangible solution to the unbanked crisis is through mobile innovation, which offer the  affordable services that banks fail to deliver.

M-Pesa allows anyone with a smartphone to deposit, withdraw or transfer money and to pay for goods and services at a fraction of what the banks would charge.

Azimo has a strong partnership with M-Pesa, with 96% of our transfers to Kenya arriving in M-Pesa mobile wallets.

Remittances sent home from abroad in this way are helping million of people to feed families, educate children, and pay for medical care. In Nigeria, remittances totalled $22bn in 2017—more than the country’s oil revenues.

Receiving a money transfer is often the first regular financial transaction that many people in sub-Saharan Africa will make.

Once people are part of a financial system, they can gain access to other life saving services, such as: borrowing to invest in housing or to start a business, insurance against crop failure, and saving for education or old age.

The UK has the biggest and most innovative fintech sector in the world, and leads in the area of mobile payments. Africa needs this innovation and expertise —and the UK fintech needs Africa to scale and grow.

As the continent continues to embrace technology and improve their digital infrastructure, there will be significant opportunities for the UK fintech firms to compete in the region with banks and local fintech competitors.

This will lead to greater choice and better services for customers—at prices that are inclusive and fair.  And with more people gaining access to financial services, there will be greater levels of prosperity in Africa, which will enable the continent to compete effectively on a global scale.

By Michael Kent, CEO, Azimo 

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